Glossary

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Term Definition
Macrophage

Greek makros - large and phagein - eat. Big eaters, cells of the immune system, serve to eliminate microorganisms or particles by phagocytosis; especially in areas of inflammation.

MBBT

MBBT structural formulaMBBT structural formulachem. Methylene-bis-Benzotriazolyltetramethylbutylphenol, is a yellowish organic solid and practically insoluble in water. The nanomaterial has been approved as a broadband UV filter in cosmetic products in the EU since 2000. It forms a protective film on the upper skin layer and scatters, reflects and absorbs the UV rays of the sun, especially UV-A radiation.

Microinjection

Describes a transfection method where microscopically small substances such as antibodies, organelles or DNA are injected in very small amounts in a single cell using a very fine glass micropipette. This procedure is normally performed using a specialised microscope setup, a so-called "micro-manipulator".

Micron

The term "micro" comes from the Greek word mikrós = small. Abbreviation = µm. 1 µm is one thousandth of a millimeter or one millionth of a meter, or 1/1.000,000 or 1/1 million m.

Modelling

Is the simulation of different processes (biochemical processes in cells, material flows of nanoparticles in ecosystems) using especially developed computer programs. By changing relevant parameters of a process, modelling allows predictions and saves laborious experiments.

MTT assay

Abbreviation for the dye compound 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromidefor. Measuring the functionality of animal and human cells. Colorimetric assay for measuring the activity of enzymes that reduce MTT or close dyes.

Mucociliary clearance

Describes the self-cleaning mechanism of the bronchi during which mucus and other materials are removed from the airways by the cilia of the epithelial cells.

Mutagenicity

Describes the capacity of certain chemicals or high energy radiation to cause changes in the genetic material (DNA), known as mutations.

 

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