There are only very few studies on the behaviour of graphene nanomaterials in the environment, focusing on surface-modified graphene. Graphene nanomaterials are highly mobile in soil and water bodies, and are able to bind other compounds.


Graphene nanomaterials are stable in surface waters and transport across long distances is feasible. Transport is independent of the waters' pH, whereas salts and ions were found to affect the transport of graphene. By binding to natural substances contained in waste waters, graphene nanomaterials are destabilised, leading to sedimentation into water bodies sediments.[1]

In sandy soils, graphene nanomaterial transport is independent of soil pH. Due to their high binding capacity, graphene may bind other compounds and hence affect the spread of chemicals in the environment. One study demonstrated an increased mobility of graphene in soil subsequent to the sorption of other substances.[2,3]





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