Only a few animal studies concerning the toxicity of indium tin oxide (ITO) have been performed with hamsters. ITO particles with a mean count diameter of 950 nm (!!!) have been intratracheally instilled into the lung.


Both studies report lung injury after treatment, culminating in neoplastic transformations. Furthermore increased indium levels in the serum of the animals could be detected. A third study, again performed with hamsters, investigated the influence of ITO particles on the testis. Only minor effects on seminiferous tubules could be detected while the reproductive capacity of the hamsters was not affected. In general the observed effects of ITO were less severe than those reported for other indium compounds such as Indium Arsenic (InAs) or Indium Phosphide (InP).



  1. Tanaka, A et al. (2002), J Occup Health, 44(2): 99-102.
  2. Omura, M et al. (2002), J Occup Health, 44(2): 105-107.
  3. Tanaka, A et al. (2010), J Occup Health, 52(1): 14-22.


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