Are nanomaterials per se toxic or dangerous?

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No, they are not. The size of a material alone does not determine its toxicity. Most substances exerting hazardous effects in the nano-size show the same toxic effects for larger sizes / bulk material. However, the exposure and distribution within organisms may differ, e.g. nanomaterials can reach deeper regions of the lung upon inhalation whereas this is not possible for larger particles.

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