Iron and Iron Oxides – Exposure

So far there are no epidemiologic data available on iron and iron oxides.

Since iron oxides occur naturally as ores in the earth’s crust, non-natural iron oxide nanoparticle exposure may be difficult to detect. Iron oxides are insoluble in water. They occur in natural waters, for example where they are released from the earth’s crust during mining.

Studies on several cell culture systems have shown that superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (so-called SPION) are tolerated very well by the cells and hardly cause any negative effects.

Since iron oxide particles are mainly intended for medical use (for example, for use as contrast agents in tumor therapy) and are directly injected into the body, the doses administered must not cause toxicity.


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