Can nanomaterials used in sunscreen cross the skin barrier and enter the body?

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Typically nanomaterials used in sunscreens like titanium dioxide or zinc oxide (inorganic uv-blockers) as well as the organic nanoscale UV-blockers MBBT and TBPT are not able to cross a healthy skin barrier and enter the human body if correctly applied (not on mucous membranes or wounds). Even in case of sunburnt skin, the nanomaterials stay in the upper layers (epidermis) of the skin. Therefore, in both cases no internal distribution of nanomaterials via the blood stream is to be expected.

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