Fullerene agglomerates of pure fullerenes are robust and can be taken up by different cell types.


A large number of cells such as macrophages or epithelial cells are able to take up agglomerates of unmodified fullerenes of up to a few micrometers. However, carbon-based nanomaterials can only be detected with great technical effort in tissue or cells [1].

Once in the cell, the particles can be detected in different organelles such as lysosomes, endosomes or in the cytosol. Here they induce, if at all, only mild temporary inflammatory reactions [2-4].


Surface modified fullerenes were not evaluated.



Literature arrow down

  1. Porter, AE et al. (2007), Environ Sci Technol, 41(8): 3012-3017.
  2. Sayers, BC et al. (2016), Nanotoxicology, 10(10): 1458-1468
  3. Sayers, BC et al. (2016), Toxicology, 339 87-96.
  4. Ema, M et al. (2012), Regul Toxicol Pharmacol, 62(3): 419-424.



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