If cerium dioxide is delivered directly into the blood stream via intravenous injection adverse effects could be observed only at very high concentrations.

 

There are only a few studies on the intravenous application of cerium dioxide [1-4]. Although the CeO2 nanoparticles have been injected into the blood stream the main portion is excreted via the faeces. However, a much larger part of the applied dose remains within the body compared to the other exposure scenarios. As most other xenobiotics cerium dioxide can be found in the liver and the spleen as has been shown by all cited studies [1-4]. Only a small amount could be found in the kidneys or the lung, within the brain and the heart the CeO2 was below the detection limit. One of these studies described a very interesting observation. After co-treatment with the liver toxin carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) cerium dioxide could prevent most of the oxidative damage by CCl4 because of its antioxidative capacity. In this case cerium dioxide has a real positive effect on the organism [1].

The other studies could demonstrate for very small particles (5 nm) [2, 3] as well as for the larger nanoparticles (30 nm) [4] an oxidative damage in the liver and partly in other organs as well. This effect was not severe but significant. It must be stated that in contrast to the study made by Hirst and colleagues [1], who have used an overall dose of 0.5 mg/kg body weight, all other three studies used very high concentration from 85 to 100 mg/kg body weight. Thus, it is no wonder that the liver shows negative effects after such high doses directly applied into the blood stream.

 

 

Literature arrow down

  1. Hirst, S.M. et. al. (2013), Environ Toxicol, 28(2): 107-118
  2. Hardas, S.S. et. al. (2012), Neurotoxicology, 33(5): 1147-1155
  3. Tseng, M.T. et al. (2012), Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol., 260(2): 173-182
  4. Yokel, R.A. et. al. (2012), Toxicol Sci, 127(1): 256-268

 

 

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